Ayers Rock (The Rock, Uluru, Oolora) – a rock formation in central Australia, Northern Territory. Located in the National Park Uluru-Kata Tjuta, near the town of Yulara, 400 km southwest of Alice Springs. He has more than 300 m high and 8 km circuit. For many years, Uluru was considered the largest monolith in the world. This is not true, because monolith Mount Augustus is more than twice. Moreover, according to recent studies. Uluru is not a monolith, but part of a larger rock formation, which also includes Kata Tjuta and Mount Connor.

Uluru was first described by explorer Ernest Giles in 1872 as “remarkable pebble”.

Constructed of Precambrian sandstones (arkozy), containing various minerals, Uluru appears to change colors depending on the incident light. Reddish color of the rocks causes the iron oxide on its surface, which is natural in the case of rock containing much iron oxides in its composition, but in this case can be highlighted by the smooth surface of rocks and lighting conditions.

It is a sacred place for local Aborigines, the caves at the foot of the rocks there are many murals. The name “Ayers Rock” was given by European settlers in honor of the South Australian Premier Sir Henry Ayers. Traditional Aboriginal name is “Uluru” and since the 80s Twentieth century is the official name of this rock, although many people still call it Ayers Rock.

In 1985 the Australian government handed ownership of the local aborigines Uluru, Anangu tribe, which gave her the government in the 99-year lease. In this place was created with 1325 km ² national park (Uluru – Kata Tjuta National Park). The entrance for visitors to the park is paid (25 Australian dollars per person – as of 2009).

The park is visited annually by hundreds of thousands of tourists. For wishing to enter the mountain top, installed the railing of the chain, but the same approach is very steep and many people give up the entry on its way. Almost every year at Uluru killed several people while climbing on it, mostly due to slipping or a heart attack. During the term of the Australian summer, from 10 to 16, due to high temperatures, the rock climbing is prohibited.

The biggest attraction for tourists is the observation of the rocks of Uluru at sunset or at sunrise when the minute it changes its color depending on lighting. Tourists gather at vantage points where a few hours piknikują. For good tone to the opening of a bottle of champagne when the sun goes down and ceases to illuminate the rock. Most tourists arrives by plane near rock airport, watching Uluru at sunset and sunrise. Nearby is also a complex of hotels and campsites and restaurants.

For Anangu Uluru is a sacred place and they would prefer that visitors not to enter the top. There is no official ban, but staying under the mountain aborigines often try to convince tourists that they have respected their habit. It is prohibited to shoot some parts of the rock.

At a distance of about 30 km there is Kata Tjuta rock band, whose appearance from a distance resembles a woman lying.

The property is on the UNESCO World Heritage List.

This fiery red rock, now located in the Australian Northern Territory, is a mountain of insular. Formed about 500 million years ago, with layers of soft sand, is deposited on the ocean floor, which once covered Australia. Then was uplifted by crustal movement. Greater cząść rock is underground.

Sandstone, which is built Ayers Rock, contains feldspar (mineral skałotwórczy) with a reddish tint. Thanks to Ayers Rock, depending on time of day changes from orange to amber and crimson.

Over time, wind and water wypłukały rock. Today flattened peak rises to 348 m above the surrounding plain. Circumference of the rocky monolith is 9 km. It is covered with grooves that have arisen as a result of water flowing down the slopes and eroding rocks at different times with different hardness.