Ahaggar Mountains

Ahaggar (Al-Hadżdżar, Dżibal al-Hukkar, Hoggar) – mountain range in the central Sahara (southern Algeria), which forms a shield in the northern part of the African platform.

Built mainly of Precambrian crystalline slate, conglomerate and gneiss repeatedly corrugated and wypiętrzanych. It consists of numerous groups of aligned mountain plateaus, above which rise the cones of extinct volcanoes. The massif is cut by a dense network of dry valleys (wadi). Highest peak – 2918 m above sea-level Tahat

In the area of ​​nomadic breeding of camels, sheep and goats.

Since 1987, part of the massif is protected under the Ahaggar National Park (fr. Parc National de l’Ahaggar), an area of ​​about 380 thousand. ha. In the park discovered several prehistoric rock paintings.

Ahaggar Mountains (or Hoggar) in Algeria are at the heart of the Sahara, ok.1500 km south of Algiers. Rise to a height of 303 m above sea-level (top Tahat). Grow from the rocky plateau, reaching 2000 m. Ahaggar massif is built of rock population of 2 million years and is part of the old bearing rock of the African continent.

Some of the peaks are volcanic plugs, or solidified lava, volcanoes obstructive holes. Over the years, volcanoes have outer layers of water and wind erosion, leaving only the studs, protruding above the pink granite plateau.

The highest of strangely shaped peaks is Ilamen height of 2670 meters above sea level.



Tanezrouft – rocky desert in the west of the Sahara, on the border between Algeria and Mali, located west of Ahaggar mountains.

Tanezrouftu area inhabited by a few Tuaregs.


Occupying about 500 thousand. km ², is an area unfavorable Tanezrouft life. Lacks even a poor flora, which can be found in other desert areas.

Most of the area belongs to the Algerian desert. In the territory of Mali, it goes back to the bands peculiar uksztautowanych Adrar des Iforas mountains reaching a height of 900 m above sea level In the east Tanezrouft reaches the foothills of Al-Hadżdżar, and north to the dunes of Erg Szasz.

Tanezrouft is the hottest desert in the world. Temperatures here during the day exceeds 50 ° C, while nights are extremely cold. It rains practically do not happen.

Trade route

By Tanezrouft leads one of the oldest and shortest trade routes crossing the Sahara and North African coast linking the Mediterranean with the fertile West Africa over the Atlantic Ocean.

Already in the Middle Ages Tanezrouft routes traveled by caravans from Timbuktu, and towards Gao, two important cities of the valley of the Niger, the Algerian oases in the north of Africa. From the coast of West Africa were brought up the continent’s precious stones, gold, ivory and slaves. On the way back the caravan were loaded with grain and textiles.

A journey through the desert land was not a easy task. Great caravan, which in 1809 went through Tanezrouft, ended with the greatest tragedy in the history of the Sahara. 2000 people and 1800 camels perished of thirst in a dry bezkresach astray and failed to find water sources.

Today, one of the four major trade routes of the Sahara is through the middle Tanezrouftu.

Is called the Land of Fear or Desert Desires. And you can add yet another title: Still Earth. Because it is completely devoid of any life.

Tanezrouft a plateau 300-500 m above sea level, located in southern Algeria, near the border with Mali, between the Ahaggar mountains, valley and Ergiem Tidikilt Shesh, one big dune. It is neither Hamad, the rocky desert or sandy ergiem or gravel serirem. Tanezrouft has in himself all these landscapes. Dominates, however, stony desert. Larger pieces of sand are in the southern part, already within Mali, and the Ahaggar seriry foothills and south of the basin Tidikilt. Though at night the temperature plummets, the average temperature in July exceeds 32 degrees. They are more hot deserts, but only that it is dead. Because it is the most dry. Annual rainfall here rarely exceed 8 cm, and often are zero! Because around the desert, the winds here are putting no moisture, such as the Namib Desert from the ocean. A plateau is Tanezrouft from all regions of the Sahara farthest from wet areas, be it sea or great rivers (Niger here.)

And everyone who will be here without preparation and equipment, it will be dead. In February 1962, the French patrol discovered the wreckage of the aircraft. In addition to dried lay, half buried in sand, the pilot’s body. It lay so for 29 years. Briton, Captain William Lancaster, in April 1933, flew from Barcelona by Oran to Gao on the Niger. Pilot acted like you, not walking away from the aircraft, but after eight days he ran out of water and died of thirst.

And around 1800, in a caravan Tanezrouft lost two thousand camels. To this day, though not found the slightest trace. It is very strange that runs through the center Tanezrouftu caravan route from the Mediterranean to Gao on the Niger, the city less famous, but more important than the famous Timbuktu. Though it is an excuse. Tuareg, arrogant people of the Sahara, who is not afraid to even Tanezrouftu is not only the shepherds and guides the caravan, but also robbers, without mercy grabiący merchants. Maybe is their work?

The Tuareg are the only people who can live with the desert. Although Muslims, women have a very high position, and obscure the faces … men. These brave warriors are able to challenge the Negro and the Arab states, who holds a deadly weapon if they have only an ally of the desert. I cope. No one has managed to subordinate or pacify the knights of the Sahara …

But it was not always so. When the glacier cover Europe, the Sahara, including Tanezrouft, gaily green with savanna, hippos and buffaloes taplały in the mud, and river crocodiles lived. That they did, we know from the rock paintings at Tassili plateau n the near `Ajjer.