Chichen Itza – pre-Columbian city founded by the Maya on the Yucatan peninsula (Mexico) around 450 a year. Preserved monuments in the southern and western parts are associated with the Mayan culture, while in the north – with the culture of the Toltecs.
The biggest development is dated to the X-XI century. In the thirteenth century, the city lost its importance, and the fifteenth was abandoned. Excavations conducted since 1924 have revealed the remains of many monuments. Its name is derived from two sacred tanks, with which it was founded (the name means Sources Chichén Itzá Itzá People). These tanks are called cenote served from the fifth century as a place of sacrifice – the Mayans threw ritually broken items.
The first buildings at Chichen Itza was built around 700 (in the classical period of art development of the Maya). They present the typical features of Mayan architecture – they are low buildings constructed of stone with smooth walls. The largest buildings were erected during the Toltec influence. Formed at that time: the largest areas of Mesoamerica pitch ullamalitzli (150 m), El Castillo – Cuculcan temple (Temple Castle), the Temple of Warriors (Templo de los Guerreros), a group of Temple of a Thousand Columns, and Jaguar.
- Temple of the Warrior – are visible in the clear influence of Toltec art. It uses the pillars built in the shape of feathered serpents and warriors as well as sculptures półleżących called Chac Mool form. Characteristic of Mayan art is applied to the virtual vaults inside the premises. Images of the Maya rain god, Chac, have been used as decoration of the walls.
- El Castillo – temple called the Castle, the Temple Cuculcan, the equivalent of Quetzalcoatl. It was built on a pyramid composed of nine stepped terraces. Stairs lead to the top of the pyramid with four sides, each course is 91 degrees (364 degrees total), 365 degree (ie number of days of the solar year) is the entrance to the temple. At the bottom of the stairs carved images of feathered serpent heads guarding the entrance to the temple.
- El Caracol – snail which is a round tower with a height of 12 m and 6.7 m in diameter built on two terraces. Placed inside the spiral staircase leading to the upper chamber. Its windows were placed radially. Hence the assumption to use the tower for astronomical observations.
In 1988 the archaeological site of Chichen Itza inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List, and July 7, 2007 the building was declared one of the seven new wonders of the world.
Chichen Itza is located in the Yucatan peninsula in Mexico. It is a ruined, overgrown vegetation, the city that the late nineteenth century amateur archaeologist discovered, Amerikanin Edward Herbert Thompson.
The city was built at the beginning of our era by the Maya. Its name comes from the times of pre-Columbian and Mayan language Itzá is at the source. The largest rise occurred from about 450 until the tenth century, when they conquered the Toltecs. This led to the penetration kultyry Mayan Toltec culture.
The city was covered road, which was 300 meters long and 6 feet wide, lined with red bricks. At the end there is a natural cavity of depth 40 meters and 60 meters in diameter, which probably acted as the sacrificial pit. During the great drought thrown to her maidens to appease the rain god. At the bottom were found large quantities of items of gold, jade and clay.
The Mayans built in huge stone buildings, temples, palaces, galleries with colonnades. One such building is the Temple of the Warrior, which is also clearly visible influence Toltec art. The pillars built in the shape of feathered serpents, warriors, and there are a half-lying sculptures Chac Mool form called. The city also built a step pyramid complex of the nine terraces on which the summit is a temple.
In Chichen Itza is a divine feathered serpent statue with a huge mouth and a tail pointing to the sky, and also erected two stone terraces on the dome, which probably served as an astronomical observatory.
Another building is Tzompantli – platform skulls. It is built on a rectangular plan with sides 60 meters to 12 meters. The red stone walls of the building were decorated with four rows of skulls, which probably represent the severed heads of prisoners who were imprisoned in Tzompantli.
The city also has several pitches ritual ball games. The game consisted of just moving the ball through the stone ring. The length of the pitch reaches up to 150 meters.