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Alborz, in literature English-speaking Alburz or Alborz – a mountain range on the Iranian Plateau in northern Iran, stretching from the border with Armenia, along the southern shore of the Caspian M., to the borders with Turkmenistan and Afghanistan. The highest peak is 5,670 m above sea-level counting Demawend.

Alborz is a barrier between the pool and the central Caspian Iran. Wypiętrzył during the Alpine orogeny, although the core is older. Built mainly of sandstones and limestones.

On the slopes of the northern forests of oak and beech, on the southern – dry steppes. From the mountains of those located at the foot of Tehran draws water through a network of underground water.

With a long and full of snow winters, Alborz is a good region for skiing. The best-known centers are Dizin, Szemszak, Darbandsar and lying in Tehran Toczal.

Maritime and land borders of Iran are secured almost the entire length of the mountain. Magnificent, snow-cone Demawend (5604 m), which is of negligible activity of the volcano, is the most famous, and also the highest peak in the Alborz mountains – masywaie length of 900 km, lying south of the Sea Kaspojskiego and running through the territory of northern Iran.

Demawendzie mention can be found in many Iranian legends, and some believe that the biblical Flood settled on the Ark of Noah.

On its northern slopes are mainly beech and oak. South side, due to lack of rainfall (280-500 mm per year only), is devoid of organic life. The Alborz Mountains Caspian tigers once lived, which now are rare. You can also find snow leopards and lynx.


Chocolate Hills

If you believe in the legend told by the inhabitants of the island of Bohol in the Philippines, located in the hills round the island is cantrum Arogo giant tears, who poured it, when his beloved named Aloy, not odwzajemniwszy its feelings, fell ill and died.

Another legend says that the two giants clashed in battle, heaved the stones. And when both are tired, resigned and left the island together.

These are just stories, but we can not exactly explain how it developed, this group of hills. They are built of limestone and present shape could obtain as a result of millions of years the process of the mineral leaching by rain. However, differ fundamentally from other forms of this type, probably because they have no system of caves and underground passages, usually found in limestone areas.

The Hills (in total there are 1268) rise up tightly next to one another, like stacks of hay in the meadow. Some are oval, the other conical. Are unevenly covered with grass, which in the rainy season is pale green. In the dry season, which lasts from February to March, the hot sun dries it and then takes on the color of chocolate brown. The color of the hill just owe their name.


Mulu Caves

Gunung Mulu National Park, located on the island of Borneo in the north-eastern Malaysian state of Sarawak, is the area for a very lush tropical rainforest. Within the Mulu is probably the highest density of caves in the world, with long, tall windows and deep passages.

All the caves were formed by running water, some as many as 5 million years ago. Here is the world’s largest cave, Sarawak Chamber (otherwise Lobang Nasip Bagus). It is 700 m long, 300 m wide and 70 m in height. It could be a garage for 7,500 buses.

Deer Cave, named so because of its input meets a lot of traces of these animals is enormous – 174 mi wide and 120 meters high could accommodate five of London’s cathedral of St. Paul.

Other more well known caves are: Cave of Winds, cave Happinesses.

Within the caves you can meet a variety of animals: blind spiders, crabs, translucent, white serpents. After dark the interior is filled with bats and languages.

The whole system of caves and the area a national park was inscribed on UNESCO’s list of UN organizations.



Country: Indonesia
Height: 813 m above sea-level

More than a million years ago in Indonesia to the west of Java was a conical volcano. Over the years, eruptions have destroyed the tip. The new cones have grown over the surface of the sea and the island of Krakatau formed with a height of 813 m and a length of 9 km.

The eruption 416

Probably about 416, the n.e. was the collapse of the original volcano and caldera formed 7-kilometer length. The remains of this former volcanic island formed Verlaten and Lang.

Later formed three, lying in the central part of the caldera volcanoes: Rakata, Danan and Perbuwatan. Their craters rose side by side on one line and form an island volcano – Krakatoa.

Eruption 1883

Since 1878, felt more and more frequent and stronger earthquakes in the Bay area, western Java and eastern Sumatra.

September 1, 1880 a strong earthquake damaged the lighthouse “First Point” on the west coast of Java (70 km southeast of Krakatoa). Subsequent shocks were felt between 9-10 May 1883 and 15-20 May 1883 Katimbang year.

20 May 1883 eruption began with Perbuwatan crater. Fine ash and steam and gases are continuously mined over the next 3 months. At that time, opened a dozen or so, constantly active, escape of gases within the volcano. Until then, the eruption recurred periodically. After a period of volcanic activity to a halt. At that time, sea water infiltrating the gaps and cracks into the volcano and was the source of steam. Aug. 11 rose a cloud of violent eruption of ash and gases from the crater Perbuwatan and Danan, and then created a number of holes and crevices. Eruptions escalated on August 24, 1883. (Verbeek, 1886, Judd, 1888; Simkin and Fiske, 1983)

27 August 1883 year, there was one of the largest recorded volcanic eruption (and also of all natural disasters) in the history of mankind. The roar could be heard from a distance of 3200 km. Began on 26 August at 12:53 local time. At night, explosions were heard from a distance of 4325 km. The column of smoke, ash and gases reached 27 km altitude. Decks of ships in the Strait of Sunda were inundated with ash, dust and pieces of pumice with a diameter of about 10 cm. Between the hours. 18:00 and 19:00 a small tsunami waves spread concentrically and hit the distant coast by up to 40 km.

August 27 at 5:30, 6:42 and 8:20 local time there were more eruptions. Each of them has caused devastating tsunami waves. Last explosion occurred about 10:02. Volcano threw up in the air 19 km ³ (some sources give values ​​up to 25 km ³) of ash to a height 55 km, that is, into the stratosphere. On the island of Rodrigues in the Indian Ocean, 4800 km away, residents have seen on the horizon ashes and sparks.

The explosion of Krakatoa caused record for the loudest and recorded the distance traveled by the sound. Shock wave created by the explosion moves at a speed of more than 1100 km / h. It is estimated that the sound level at a distance of 160 km from the epicenter was over 180 decibels.

2 / 3 of the island disappeared from the face of the earth, and of the remainder (Rakata) life has been completely destroyed. Tsunami wave heights up to 40 meters and speeds over 700 km / h, washed off the local village on a nearby shore and went around half of the Earth, before completely disappeared. Ships off the coast of South Africa zachybotały result in tsunami-induced eruption. Seismic wave went around the Earth seven times. Probably killed around 40 thousand people (there are no exact data). Floating on the ocean surface bodies of victims were found by a few weeks after the disaster. Gases released into the atmosphere made it for about 3 years the Sun as seen from Earth, was the color green, and blue moon. It is estimated that the explosion was about 200 megatons of power of TNT and a total of blurted out 46 km ³ of dust which covered a total of sinking 70% of the world.

The cause of the tsunami was probably drained piroklastyczne, which moved on the slopes of the volcano and fell into the sea. Each of the five explosions caused piroklastyczny runoff, flowing into the sea which caused the displacement of an equal volume of water, which is a few km ³ each. Found traces of underwater runoff piroklastycznych just 15 km from Krakatau. In addition, recent studies of German scientists have shown that moving at high speed, pyroclastic material penetrating runoff to the sea in the form of ash and gas at 1200 degrees Celsius even floats on water vapor as a pillow. In this way, probably destroyed part of the coast of Sumatra distant about 40 miles from the island.

Anak Krakatau

After the Krakatoa explosion in 1883 left three islands, of which one remained active volcano. In 1930 this place has emerged an active volcanic mountain today (about 320 m high) bearing the name of Anak Krakatau (“Child Krakatoa”).

Cone of the volcano continues to grow at a rate of about 5.1 m per year. Currently has a height comparable to that of the old Krakatoa. Wounded so far four people and killed one person (data 2006). Established a ban on approaching the volcano within a radius of 3 km.

Back to life on Anak Krakatau and Rakata

Little is known about the fauna that lived Krakatau before 1883. The eruption destroyed the island of all living organisms. Yes sterilized the area became a target of the biogeografów.

Since May 1884 a French scientific expedition began the search for life on Rakacie. Discovered only one spider with a very small scale. Waterway to the shores of the island began to pass crabs. Approximately 1899 of the nearby islands escaped stripe Waran (Varanus salvator), and later python mesh (Python reticulatus).

In the 80s Nineteenth century, biologists have shown that Anak Krakatau and Rakata are regularly inhabited by various species of arthropods comprising the aeroplanktonu. The presence of 72 species. In subsequent years, the islands were colonized by various groups of plants and animals, the sequence of their appearance was coincidental. In 1928 there were nearly 300 species of grasses and shrubs. Many species of animals, especially vertebrates, extinct shortly after the arrival of the Rakata.

In the years 1984-1985 found 30 species of land birds, 11 – mammals (including 9 species of bats), 9 – reptiles and over 600 species of invertebrates. Biodiversity has reached the volume level comparable to other islands of this type after about 100 years after the eruption in 1883, but the species composition is characterized by less stability.

Mount Fuji

Country: Japan
Frequency: volcano
Height: 3776 m above sea-level
Prominence: 3776 m
First ascent: the first traces are from 663 years

Mount Fuji (Fujiyama Japanese) is a marvel of nature and sacred place, revered by Buddhists, who consider it a gateway to another world. The crater is known as Naiin (Temple). Fudżijam is also of great importance in the ancient Japanese Shinto religion. Its followers believe that gods and spirits (kami) live in the rocks and trees on the slopes of the mountains.

Mount Fuji is covered by snow most of the year. Symmetrically inclined slopes and the base of the shape of a perfect circle with a circumference of 126 km makes it extremely beautiful. Mountain is visible in pogodnu day with a distance of about 80 km. This is a young volcano, which was about 600 thousand. years ago. erupted 18 times, the last eruption occurred in 1707, and the ashes then found their way up to a distance of 100 km of Tokyo.


It is an inactive volcano lying on the rocks of marine Paleogene and Neogene. The diameter of the crater is 500 m and 250 m depth magma chamber volume of about 1400 km3 lies at a depth of about 56 km. Fuji is composed of three volcanic cones that are remnants of different age phases of volcanism and works invisibly on the surface. The oldest is a pre-cone Komitake active against 700 thousand. years and is known only from boreholes. It is characterized by volcanism andezytowym. A little younger, preserved on the surface is a cone Komitake of around 700 thousand. years, wulkanizmie andezytowo-basalt. Another so-called cone. Mature Fuji run of 80 thousand. years to 11 thousand. years ago and was characterized by basalt volcanism, like the cone of Fuji’s younger, active from 11 thousand. years and the highest of the three discussed. Although the main phase of the Younger Fuji activity for the period 11-8 thousand. years ago, this volcano is still active. 781 r n.e. There were 10 eruptions, including three very significant. The last eruption took place from October 28, 1707, to January 1, 1708, in the Edo era. This was the result of a strong earthquake of October 28, 1707. The probability of successive eruptions is assessed as significant.

Nearby Mount Fuji are two other volcanoes: Ashitaka and Hakone.

Fuji tourist development

Volcano and its massif are the targets of a number of tourist trips and pilgrimages. The official climbing season is July and August. At the top are currently (2008) four hiking trails, with which it is paid ten tourist resorts. To a height of 2400 m above sea-level can be reached by asphalt road, the bus in the summer cruise. On top of running a meteorological observatory.

In the winter season (from mid-November) on the northwestern slope of terrain are open for skiing.

Around Mount Fuji, from the north, lies five lakes under the name Fuji GOKO: Kawaguchi, Yamanaka, Sai, Motosu and Shoji. Near the waterfalls are also known Shiraito, often visited by tourists. Fuji is a part of the National Park Fuji-Hakone-Izu.

In June 2009, opened on Mount Fuji Shizuoka Airport, a small airport to operate from airports in Nagoya and Tokyo-Haneda. The port is located between the cities of Shizuoka and Hamamatsu.

Fuji importance in the culture

The distinctive silhouette of a volcano whose peak is covered with snow most of the year, was and is very popular motif in art. The famous mountain landscapes in the form of a series of woodcuts Fri: “36 views of Mount Fuji mountain,” are the work of Hokusai’a Katsushiki.

Fuji is a sacred mountain for the followers of Shinto – as a female deity Konohana-no-sakuyahime-no-Mikoto. It was built on the three torii gates and two temples. Until 1868 a ban on entry to the top for women.

Designers skyscraper X-Seed 4000 design developed shape resembling the top of Fuji. Building (if formed) would be 200 meters higher than the top.


Singing sand dune

Scientist Ralph Bagnold told that during his stay in the desert suddenly heard lasting for a few minutes the sound of low intensity, so piercing, that human speech drowned. This sound usually appeared in the quiet evenings following a windy day.

It was not a sound nor carried by animals or by humans or some extraordinary machine. He came from the dunes, which sang. It is known that the sands of the southern Sahara desert of Takla Makan and central Asia and in the Rub al-Chali in Saudi Arabia appear to these strange and often frightening sounds.

Sand is composed of quartz particles. When the sand has the same size are set in motion by the wind or by passing an animal, they start small waves roll through the slopes of the dunes, like oil on glass. Sometimes during the rolling sand can be heard vibrating groan, which turns into a rumble, dying when the waves of sand, motionless.

It seems that temperature plays an important role in the process of singing – the more heated is the top layer of sand, the louder sounds.