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Graveyard of Ships

Constructed before modern navigation equipment, sailors feared the coastal waters of Victoria (Australia) more than any other coastal waters in the world. The waves here are high and full of these rocks, pillars and cliffs above and below the water surface.

Coast is 320 km long. At the 120-kilometer stretch known as the Graveyard of Ships happened more than 80 major maritime disasters.

Cliffs were once part of the seabed formed by shells, mud and limestone. Roughly 25 million years ago, the seabed there were about 100 meters higher than now. When the level is lowered wodu, cliffs formed a shoreline. Stone pillars called the Twelve Apostles were once part of the land, but were cut off from him by the action of waves.

 

Rotorua

Country: New Zealand
Region: Bay of Plenty, Waikato
Location: 38 ° 7 ‘S 176 ° 19′ E
Population: 68,000

Twin Cities:

  • Klamath Falls, Oregon, USA
  • Beppu, Japan
  • Lake Macquarie, Australia
  • Wuzhong, China

Rotorua – the city (about 68 thousand. Inhabitants, including 35% Maori) in New Zealand in the central part of the North Island (234 km from Auckland, 457 from Wellington), located on Lake Rotorua. An important center of Maori culture, it is the only Maori theater. Considered the capital of New Zealand geothermal phenomena. Park is located around the old sanatorium building (now a museum), geothermal waters of sulfur (in the city rises to the characteristic smell of hydrogen sulfide). Te Puia Geothermal Park geyser Pohutu of throwing streams of steam and hot water to a height of 20 meters, 4 – 5 times per hour. Near the Tarawera volcano, whose eruption in 1886 destroyed the Maori village and a small hotel for tourists viewers Pink Terraces (were completely destroyed during the eruption). Increased volcanic eruption and created a lake Tarawera Volcanic Valley Waimangu valley with numerous geothermal phenomena.

A large tourist resort, every year about 1.6 million visitors. Well-developed accommodation and catering.

Rotorua on the North Island of New Zealand is one of the most interesting areas of geothermal activity. Here are some hot springs, geysers, hissing outlet passages and a lake full of violently bubbling mud. Due to the ubiquitous, strong smell of the place is called the City of Sulphur.

Slightly south, Whakarewarewa (in Maori “spot the rising steam”) is the largest geyser in New Zealand – Pohutu (rozpryskujący). Sometimes, at intervals of several minutes, sometimes monthly, it produces a hot fountain with a height of 30 m. This phenomenon can take up to 40 minutes.

To the east lies Tikitere, which said that there was a princess maoruska committed suicide by throwing himself into the boiling pond. Hell’s Gate (Gate of Hell) in Tikitere is the only hot waterfall (38 ° C) in the southern hemisphere.

 

Bora-Bora

Country: French Polynesia
Reservoir: Pacific Ocean
Area: 38 sq km
Population (2002)
• population: 7 295
• density: 192 persons / km ²

Bora-Bora – island in the Pacific Ocean, coral atoll surrounding the volcanic cone, in French Polynesia, Islands In The Wind in the Society Islands archipelago, northwest of Tahiti.

Inhabited by Polynesians, who settled here centuries ago and left after them, ruins of temples and carvings. The island is home to approximately 5 000 permanent inhabitants, its surface is about 44 km2.

On the island there are two peaks: Pahia (661 m) and 727 m above sea level Otemanu, and there are two smaller islands reefs.

Discovered by Dutch navigator Jacob Roggeveen in 1722 and later in 1769 flowed past, anchored in 1777, English navigator and explorer James Cook. Europe’s first resident was a castaway from the whaling ship James Connor in 1792.

Since 1845, the island became part of French Polynesia. During the Second World War in Bora Bora was a U.S. naval base and land, with six thousand soldiers. Today the island is an important tourist center and a culture of black pearls.

Bora-Bora served as the prototype of the American writer James Michenerowi to describe the idyllic island in the book Tales of the South Pacific, it also treats the American musical Rodgers and Hammerstein’s South Pacific in 1949.

American novelist James A. Michener called Bora-Bora in the Society Islands archipelago, “the most beautiful island in the world” and put in its setting his novel “South Pacific”, which was later converted to a musical. Many people think that the Bora-Bora is a paradise on earth. The first settlers came here from the south-east Asia 2,000 years ago.

In the middle of the island rise to residues of the volcano with two peaks. Mount Otemanu, now with a height of 725 m, once rose to the height of 5400 m above sea level later eruptions destroyed the summit. This long-extinct wylkan now overgrown dense, green forest. Spreads around the island in August turquoise lagoon, separated from the sea, sandy Mierzeja. All this is bound with a ring of coral reef, sandy islands, called motus.

Haleakala

The crater of Haleakala on the Hawaiian island of Maui is the result of numerous volcanic eruptions and thousands of years of erosion caused by wind, rain and streams. All these phenomena have contributed to the formation of the current shape of the volcano. The ring has a circumference of the crater 34 km and is large enough to accommodate in its interior the entire island of Manhattan (USA). Crater depth is 600 m.

Haleakala last erupted in 1970, so it is at rest. However, it can be activated at any time. This extremely broad and deep volcano, rising 3,055 meters above sea level, is the largest dormant volcano in the world.

Inside the crater there are boulders that have rolled in, cones of ash, sometimes with a height of 300 m, a layer of ash and volcanic bombs (pieces of lava) with a hand grenade of sizes up to the car.

Haleakalā – a volcano in the Pacific Ocean on the island of Maui in the Hawaiian archipelago. It rises to a height of 3055 meters above sea-level Its summit is often shrouded in dense clouds.

Located in the National Park Haleakalā area 122.15 km ². The crater of a volcano with a length of 11.3 km and a width of 3.2 km has a circumference of 34 km. Its depth reaches 800 meters.

The last time this volcano erupted about 1790. From his side the crater lava flowed, which contributed to the Gulf of La Perouse.

From the eastern side of the crater is a vantage point for tourists visiting this place. One of the attractions are the spectacular sunrises and sunsets seen from the crater.

In 1961, registered at the top of a volcano in Hawaii record-low air temperature (-10 ° C).

 

Ayers Rock

Ayers Rock (The Rock, Uluru, Oolora) – a rock formation in central Australia, Northern Territory. Located in the National Park Uluru-Kata Tjuta, near the town of Yulara, 400 km southwest of Alice Springs. He has more than 300 m high and 8 km circuit. For many years, Uluru was considered the largest monolith in the world. This is not true, because monolith Mount Augustus is more than twice. Moreover, according to recent studies. Uluru is not a monolith, but part of a larger rock formation, which also includes Kata Tjuta and Mount Connor.

Uluru was first described by explorer Ernest Giles in 1872 as “remarkable pebble”.

Constructed of Precambrian sandstones (arkozy), containing various minerals, Uluru appears to change colors depending on the incident light. Reddish color of the rocks causes the iron oxide on its surface, which is natural in the case of rock containing much iron oxides in its composition, but in this case can be highlighted by the smooth surface of rocks and lighting conditions.

It is a sacred place for local Aborigines, the caves at the foot of the rocks there are many murals. The name “Ayers Rock” was given by European settlers in honor of the South Australian Premier Sir Henry Ayers. Traditional Aboriginal name is “Uluru” and since the 80s Twentieth century is the official name of this rock, although many people still call it Ayers Rock.

In 1985 the Australian government handed ownership of the local aborigines Uluru, Anangu tribe, which gave her the government in the 99-year lease. In this place was created with 1325 km ² national park (Uluru – Kata Tjuta National Park). The entrance for visitors to the park is paid (25 Australian dollars per person – as of 2009).

The park is visited annually by hundreds of thousands of tourists. For wishing to enter the mountain top, installed the railing of the chain, but the same approach is very steep and many people give up the entry on its way. Almost every year at Uluru killed several people while climbing on it, mostly due to slipping or a heart attack. During the term of the Australian summer, from 10 to 16, due to high temperatures, the rock climbing is prohibited.

The biggest attraction for tourists is the observation of the rocks of Uluru at sunset or at sunrise when the minute it changes its color depending on lighting. Tourists gather at vantage points where a few hours piknikują. For good tone to the opening of a bottle of champagne when the sun goes down and ceases to illuminate the rock. Most tourists arrives by plane near rock airport, watching Uluru at sunset and sunrise. Nearby is also a complex of hotels and campsites and restaurants.

For Anangu Uluru is a sacred place and they would prefer that visitors not to enter the top. There is no official ban, but staying under the mountain aborigines often try to convince tourists that they have respected their habit. It is prohibited to shoot some parts of the rock.

At a distance of about 30 km there is Kata Tjuta rock band, whose appearance from a distance resembles a woman lying.

The property is on the UNESCO World Heritage List.

This fiery red rock, now located in the Australian Northern Territory, is a mountain of insular. Formed about 500 million years ago, with layers of soft sand, is deposited on the ocean floor, which once covered Australia. Then was uplifted by crustal movement. Greater cząść rock is underground.

Sandstone, which is built Ayers Rock, contains feldspar (mineral skałotwórczy) with a reddish tint. Thanks to Ayers Rock, depending on time of day changes from orange to amber and crimson.

Over time, wind and water wypłukały rock. Today flattened peak rises to 348 m above the surrounding plain. Circumference of the rocky monolith is 9 km. It is covered with grooves that have arisen as a result of water flowing down the slopes and eroding rocks at different times with different hardness.

 

Amazon Rainforest

Rain forests occur in tropical areas around the equator. Intense rainfall causes rapid and luxuriant growth of vegetation. Amazon rain forest is the largest rainforest in the world and covers an area of ​​7,000,000 km ², the lower parts of the Andes to the Brazilian Atlantic coast.

Amazon rain forest is important for the environment on the globe and chewing on it wszytkich organisms. Trees assimilate carbon dioxide, contributing to the formation of the so-called. greenhouse effect, ie, global warming, which may cause melting of the polar ice caps and – consequently – the great floods. The trees also give off oxygen necessary for life to people and animals.

Some trees in the rain forest reaches rare size (over 60 m). Their leaves form umbrella-vault, which block the access of light to the lower parts of rośliności, limiting their vegetation.

The world of animals in the Amazon is surprisingly diverse and rich. At the end of the nineteenth century English naturalist am confident classified 14,712 species of animals, with over 8 thousand. until then unknown. Now we know more than 100 thousand. species of animals and birds and at least 270 thousand. beetles. Probably millions more waiting to be discovered.